3D Printed Accessories for the FT-817

A few radio accessories printed out recently for the ‘817 transceiver (from Thingyverse, see links):

DC plug adaptor using an XT60 connector.  I have been using these connectors for a while now, they are small and capable of a lot of current.  On my model plane, they were passing 50 Amps for brief periods with no signs of overheating.

18650 Lithium battery 3 cell carrier for inside the FT-817.  I have put together 18650 carriers for the ‘817 in the past, but the original lid would not go on properly.  This carrier has a slot for a 3 cell battery management system board (BMS), so it is an improvement over the previous.  The printed lid is raised slightly so as to accommodate the larger cells.  It fits very well.   Still waiting for the BMS to arrive.

Three band end fed half wave antenna.  This design was posted previously in the blog.  It was made into a 3D print project and posted on thingyverse by mfhepp.
It came out a bit lighter than this one.  The matcher box is integrated into the winder.

This one is for the KX2. Its a KX2 paddle using RF finger stock. I had some finger stock left over from a HF screwdriver antenna build and it was just the right fit.

XT60 chassis mounted flange:

Posted in Projects, radio communications, SOTA | Tagged | 6 Comments

USX or uSDX QRP HF Transceiver

This build is based on the interesting design by Guido, PE1NNZ.  The transceiver originally used the very successful QCX as an initial platform, but it now has it’s own life and there are several scratch builds using dedicated PCBs on the forum.

An Atmel ATMEGA 328 is pushed close to the limit in an SDR application processing SSB IQ from a Tayloe IQ detector.  The speaker audio is supplied directly from the 328 pins as PWM.  So no audio amp is required.
The transmitter uses a class D or E PA and implements Envelope Elimination and Restoration (EER) to deliver a highly efficient effectively linear power amplifer.

The implementation does have several compromises, however, running in a simple 8 bit processor with 10 bit A/D convertors.
Refer to the Github page for design details.

This build presently uses two boards, the UI and processor and the RF board in a stacked arrangement connected by headers.  A test PCB was put together for the RF side, with the intention of experimenting with the design.  The processor board was built using proto board.

The unit all boxed up measures about 7.5 x 8 x 3.5 cm and hopefully could be used on a SOTA trip to keep the weight down.  It was painted bright orange so as not to lose it!

Completed unit

RF Test Board

Processor UI Proto

The PWM speaker audio worked fairly well on an efficient speaker but not so well on a small 50mm speaker.  An LM386 amp was added to boost the volume to useful outdoor SOTA levels.
The RF board ended up with lots of links and suffered from changing chips and experimenting.  I might do a final board, but there are others now doing a pretty good job of boards on the UCX forum.

To speed up the build, I used an Adafruit Si5351a breakout board, although this uses a 25MHz clock necessitating a def change in the software and some hardware changes.

So,how does it perform?

The RX audio sounds OK, I had some problems keeping the PWM frequency out of the extra audio stage despite additional filtering.  There is some residual hiss that is quite noticeable on low volume settings.   The Tayloe detector has spurious responses at odd harmonics, so it’s relying on the transmitter LPF to reduce these.  A BPF or tuned bifilar toroid like the QCX would improve selectivity.
There are regular “pops” on the receiver that can be eliminated by selecting 13dB attenuation in the menu at the cost of some sensitivity.
Others have had problems with OLED display noise getting into the receiver, although none noted on this build.  Good supply rail bypassing and grounding is essential.

The transmit audio is quite intelligible, although does sound a bit edgy.  The transmit spectrum looks just clean enough for amateur use with harmonics and spurs around 50dB.  I have made some SOTA chaser contacts successfully into NSW with it.  The Transmit power is around 7W, this should be reduced back to 5W as it’s marginal with the design at this level.

Considering all the above, on a summit in most cases it is probably ok, although you might get some comments on rough TX audio quality.

In summary, it’s a pretty amazing minimalistic SDR design and squeezes almost everything out of the processor.  I look forward to an implementation on a more powerful platform with higher A/D resolution with more speed and bits.

On the right, the newer build 150grams

Newer build RF board

Processor board

They are getting smaller, uSDX top RHS

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Jpole for 70cm

While experimenting with LoRa, I needed a better antenna at home for range testing the LoRa tracker.  I came across this Jpole antenna calculator and used it as a starting point for dimensions.
As we are presently locked down and and travel is only allowed for essential reasons, I had to use materials that were on hand.  I found some 6mm copper pipe, and although its a bit soft, it would be easy to solder to and should stand up ok outside.

In the past, it’s been weatherproofing the Jpole match that has been the challenge.  I found a weatherproof looking plastic enclosure in the junk box that looked like it would protect it.
A test was done with the coax feed solder tacked onto the pipe at the calculated point using the calculated lengths for the radiator and stub.  A VNA was connected and the match was perfect without any need to make an adjustment.  The return loss read off at just over 30dB with the antenna in the clear, away from any metal.

Return Loss

Jpole Match

Stabilising the radiator and stub inside the box are some 6mm cable clips.  The nail was removed and the hole left was a perfect self tap diameter for 2mm stainless screws.  The coax is decoupled with a ferrite about 25mm long.  Not sure of it’s properties as it came from the junk box.  It seems to do the job as the return loss is not affected by touching the coax.

Copious amounts of neutral cure silcone sealant were added around the radiator and stub entry to the box.  A drain hole is left at the bottom of the box incase water does get in.
After fitting into the box and adding the sealant, the match did not change too much which was surprising.  It’s now on a pole outside at about roof high, ready for some LoRa testing

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Archer Lookout VK3/VC-038

One of the newer Victorian summits added to the register late in 2019 was Archer Lookout, VK3/VC-038.  Ron, VK3AFW was the first to activate it and after some discussions on access, I planned an activation on an ebike.

Archer Lookout is just off Monda Rd., near Narbethong.  I accessed it from Myers Creek Rd., Toolangi and took Monda Rd to a point about 3km past the Mt. St. Leonard car park, where  the road started to deteriorate for my low ground clearance AWD.  I could have probably gone further, but the track was wet and boggy in a couple of spots.

At this point, I got out the ebike, put on the pack and rode off down the road.  The ride was pretty steep in parts going over Mt. Monda.  There were a lot of fist size rough rocks on the ascent and descent of Mt. Monda that made it pretty bumpy on the bike, especially going down under braking.  Apart from that it was a nice ride ~8km each way, the bike had no problem with ascending the steep parts of the track.

Muddy Track

After the activation on Mt. Monda, I rode north down Nursery Spur Rd., and then down Lookout Spur Rd., which looked ok for a normal AWD.  I turned back and returned to the car making a mental note to access Archer Lookout from the Narbethong direction next time via Anderson Lane, Plantation Road and then Lookout Spur Rd.  This should be straight forward and avoid the muddy rough sections on Monda Rd.

 

On the way

On the summit clearing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A bit later, I returned via Myers Creek Rd., and then over the Black Spur to Narbethong and took Andersons Lane, then Plantation Road  and Black Range Road to Mt. Mitchell, VK3/VN-012.  There are a lot of roads cut through this area where there are plantations.  It is pretty easy to lose your bearings if not careful, many of the tracks were new and not on my map.  Access was good AWD.

Since the inital activation in November 2019, I returned again on 2nd January and did the same ride again.

 

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LoRa GPS Tracker

LoRa is a newish Internet Of Things communications technology.  It promises long range (LoRa), transmits a small amount of power and is designed for sensors that may need to operate from batteries for very long periods of time.  The air protocol works at very low received signal levels, with down to -148 dBm claimed with low data rate transfers.

There are several LoRa modules available for very reasonable prices from Ebay.  I purchased 3 x AIThinker RA-02 modules for $20.  These modules use the Semtech SX1278 chip which packs in an amazing amount of functionality.  The module is capable of +17dBm transmit, with a boost mode for +20dBm (100mW).

One of the LoRa bands is 433MHz, in the 70cm amateur band.  With an interest in a low power GPS tracker that could be used as the “last mile” for APRS and hiking, a test transmitter and receiver were designed and assembled.

LoRa is intended to work in a network topology with nodes that talk to field units (LoRaWAN), but there is a peer to peer mode using the LoRa protocol that has been made available by the Radiohead driver collection.  I used Arduinos for the control side of things as there are many drivers and sample applications available.  The GPS is a UBlox 6M unit, not the smallest, but works well.

The system was set up for a 125kHz bandwidth and a spreading factor of 11, which gives a data rate of 500 bits/sec.  Initially, I tried a spreading factor of 7, giving a 5000bit/sec. data rate and this worked for a couple of kilometres with the receiver sitting on the car dash.

For a more controlled test, I set up the transmitting unit in the back yard connected to a mobile whip that was about 3 metres above the ground.   The receiver was packaged up in a small speaker enclosure and fitted with an LCD display so I could see the decoded packets.

I went for a ride on the bike with the receiver and chose a distance 5km from the transmitter that was non line of sight to see what would happen.  To my surprise, packets were decoded, a few were missed depending on antenna orientation (a 70cm portable rubber duck).

Here is an elevation plot of the radio path:

 

 

 

As you can see, it is not line of site.

Here is the GPS tracker:

GPS Tracker

LoRa Receiver

Here is the receiver:

Power for the tracker is supplied from a single 18650 LiPo cell.  A 3.3 volt supply is used for the Arduino Pro Mini, Neo 6M GPS and RA-02 LoRa module.

To save power, the GPS is powered up every minute at the moment for testing.  A REG103 LDO regulator with shutdown is used for turning off the GPS receiver and RA-02 between transmissions.  The initial cold fix takes about 30 seconds inside the house.  Subsequent warm fixes are very fast at about 2 seconds.

With the Arduino sleeping between the 2 minute GPS reports, the cell should last about 15 days.  The idle Arduino Pro Mini sleep current @ 8 MHz is about 2 mA.  The GPS uses about 60 mA and the LoRa transmit, about 120 mA.   It should run for more than two weeks hours on a 2500 mAh cell (providing GPS signal available, if not it will spend longer searching).   After a warm start, the GPS only takes a couple of seconds to acquire.

With the LED removed and the regulator bypassed, the sleep current should be even lower.

Tracker packaging

For the moment, the tracker is packaged up in a section of PVC pressure pipe with the cell.  This is quite robust and water resistant although not very efficient in terms of space.

If I can source a robust enclosure of the right dimensions, it could be much more compact.

PVC Pipe Housing

The housing turned out to be far to big, so I found a standard ABS enclosure that was about the right size and rebuilt the board to fit.  Unfortunately the 2500 mAh cell was too big for the enclosure, so I had to settle for a 1000 mAh cell with a rectangular footprint.

This cell fits very well, but the run time is now reduced to about 1.5 weeks, assuming a report time of 3 minutes.  The idle current has dropped again by reducing the bleed current from the Arduino port pins to the LoRa module.  The port pins are now all set low before entering sleep mode.  The idle current is now sitting just over 1mA.

New smaller case

Here is the path profile of a GPS report from the tracker when the antenna was a mobile whip on the car and the receiver antenna, a J-pole mounted at roof height.  This one must be an exception as the path is not line of sight.

Link Path of approximately 10km

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NanoVNA and EFHW

The NanoVNA arrived the other week, these units are very good value and work remarkably well.  With small size and weight (63 grams)including battery, it can easily be taken out in the field, providing it is protected from the elements.  The NanoVNA is a PCB sandwich essentially, with open sides.

The first test was to sweep the filters in the compact 20 metre transceiver.  The filters came out pretty well spot on.

Next test was the 3 band SOTA portable end fed half wave antenna to see if it was still in resonance after many activations over the last few years.  It had been repaired a couple of times after tree snags, and maybe lost a cm or two.

The antenna was tested as a sloper in the back yard with one end supported by a 6 metre squid pole, and the feed end supported by a walking pole.  It was also tested in the same configuration but using an 8 metre squid pole.  The results only changed slightly, lowering the resonant frequency.
A short counterpoise was connected but this made very little difference to resonance.
The shots below have some light reflections, it would have been better to connect a PC, but convenience won.

40 metres using 6 metre pole

 

20190906_121349

20m using 6 metre pole

10 metres on 6 metre pole

 

40 metres using 8 metre pole

20 metres using 8 metre pole

10 metres using 8 metre pole

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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20 metre SSB Compact Transceiver

This one follows the design of the DK7IH Cigarette Packet Micro Transceiver.  The changes made to the original design are:
– Plug in front end, transmit driver and PA low pass filters
– FET power amplifier (IRF510) rather than bipolar
– Toroid filters for front end, transmit driver and PA low pass filter
– Discrete crystal SSB filter
– Nokia type LCD display

The construction is mostly SMD on the bottom of the board, with leaded parts on the top side of the board.  I didn’t make a PCB for this one, it is built on pad per hole prototyping board.  Earthing could be a problem, so lots of earth run around the board underneath.  It does look  rather untidy compared to the previous compact transceivers where a PCB was made.  Maybe a PCB later on if it works out ok.
I like the idea of swapping the clock generator outputs to the mixers in software for receive to transmit switching.  It certainly simplifies re-use of the mixers for transmit and receive.

So far the receiver is working fine, with a 0.1 uV minimum discernible signal (MDS).  Still some work to do on software before the transmitter can be tested.  The SSB filter is slightly broader (~ 4kHz wide) than intended although the response shape is good.

The main transceiver and clock generator board is 50mm x 100mm.  With some luck it will fit into a 60mm x 120mm x 35mm enclosure.  It may end up being a hand held type HF radio if things work out.  Of course, it will need a trailing ground if used in this configuration.  There also needs to be some access to the plug in band modules on the enclosure.

20m Compact Transceiver

 

 

 

 

 

Mechanics test fit:

Hand Held Layout

Hand Held Layout

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New Case for the QRPLabs QCX CW Transceiver

The QCX transceiver was previously packaged in a standard plastic enclosure from Altronics.  The fit was good and the extra space allowed for a battery pack but metal is a better choice for RF.
I was not satisfied with the ergonomics of the controls so I decided to repackage it in an aluminium case.  The HB metal bender was used to make a simple two part case from 1.2mm aluminium sheet.

The case turned out quite well although I elected not to make space for a battery pack this time, and rely on external power.

Finished Case

This layout makes a bit more sense than the original one.

The most used control, the VFO is in the clear and the others further back.  I also turned up new knob for the VFO.

The switches will be set lower into the panel later as the RH one is close to a  trimpot inside the case .

Lid off the case

Here the lid is off the case.  To secure the lid to the base, four 3mm aluminium right angle brackets are fitted to the base and also serve as mounting studs for the board.  The brackets are threaded to accept the 3mm screws for the lid.

A brass shaft extension is added to the rotary encoder.  I may put a bearing in the lid from an old pot later on if play is an issue.

Left side with audio out

Right side with key socket

There is provision on the RHS for a switch to add a cap for operation on 30 metres (the unit is 20 metre).   This works fine for receive and probably needs something added to the LPF on transmit.

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Three Summits around Falls Creek

With nice weather forecast and a day off on Monday, it was an ideal opportunity to do a couple of new summits in the Falls Creek area.  I left home in Melbourne’s South East at 7am on Sunday and took the more scenic route via the Princes Freeway to Bairnsdale and then North through Omeo.
Once past Omeo I took the Bogong High Plains Rd., which was new for me.  This road is sealed and in very good condition although there are many twisting turns so progress is quite slow.

I arrived at the Mt Cope car park at about 1pm., from here, the walk is short (about 1.5km each way) and starts at the Bogong High Plains Rd.  Apart from a ranger posting a sign about upcoming deer shooting at the car park, I didn’t see anyone else.  Mt Cope, VK3/VG-001 at 1837 metres is a 10 point summit.

At the summits, contacts were made on 20m and 40m including a summit to summit with Brian, VK3MCD on Mt. Granya.  ZL, VK1, 2 and 5 call areas were worked.  Cell coverage was good and there were plenty of trees to bungy the squidpole to.
After about 11 contacts, I headed back to the car.

There wasn’t a lot of time left in the day, so I went to Mt. McKay as it is a drive up summit and should not take too long.   Mt McKay, VK3/VE-007 at 1849 metres is a 10 point summit.  Just before the car park on the summit, there was a short pipe sticking out of a rock.  This was ideal to fix the squid pole to, the antenna was unrolled and I set up on the top of another rock.


Two ladies came over and asked what I was doing with the fishing rod and were suprised to hear me talking to ZL1TM.  A summit to summit was made with Peter, VK3ZPF on Mt. Donna Buang.  Most contacts were made on 40m.  ZL, VK2,3 and 5 call areas were worked with some very strong signals.

As it was 4pm, I went south back down the Bogong High Plains Rd. looking for a campsite.  The Raspberry Hill campsite looked ok and it was empty, so I set up there for the night.  As the campsite was at 1600 metres altitude, the temperature dropped sharply at sunset and before long it was hovering at 2 degrees.

In the morning I left the campsite at 8am and drove back up the High Plains Rd. towards Falls Creek for the walk to Mt. Nelse.  The car park for the Big River Firetrail is just short of Falls Creek.  Mt Nelse, VK3/VE-004 at 1882 metres is a 10 point summit.

The walk to Mt. Nelse is about 12 km return.  Most of the walk is along a 4wd track in open plains.  The track goes past the closest point to the summit and then a walking track doubles back to the top.

At the summit, there are the remains of a trig point consisting of a vertical pipe a metre or so long. This makes a good fixture to attach the squid pole.

All contacts were made on 40m within VK2,4, 5, 6 call areas.  By now the wind was  getting up and the chill factor biting, so the kit was packed up and I returned to the car.

Throughout the area, 2m APRS worked very well via Mt. Hotham digipeater.

The trip home was by the same route via Omeo and Bairnsdale, taking about 6 hours including a fuel stop.

Posted in Hiking, SOTA | Tagged , , | 2 Comments

144 MHz for the KX2 Transceiver

Many times I have thought it would be nice to have 2 metres on the KX2, I do miss it from the FT817 days.

This bare board transverter was on Ebay from a Ukraine seller, the feedback was very good and it looked quite compact so for about $35, I ordered one.

Bare Board Transverter

It took about 4 weeks to arrive, but it was over the Christmas break, so probably not too bad.

Internals

It measures about 80 x 45 mm, a very suitable size for portable operation.  The power output is stated as 10 to 15 Watts, so not too shabby.

A metal case was then bent up using my home brew metal bender.
A relay switched attenuator

Boxed up

was grafted between the PCB and the transceiver side BNC socket.  I was satisfied that the leads were short enough not to cause a problem.

A 10dB attenuator is fitted to a stand off post to make it level with the relay.  The T configuration attenuator is made from paralleled 0805 SMD resistors so that the power rating is 1 watt.
The KX2 will be set up for about 500mW out so that the maximum drive level of the transverter is easily met.

The KX2 has some nice configuration options to suit transverters.  Parameters such transverter number (you can have several), power output, frequency offset etc. are easily configurable.  In fact, the default configuration was fine.
When powered up, the transverter worked straight off.  Power out was around 10 watts, more should be possible, but will wait until the linearity can be monitored.  Sensitivity seems ample as well.

Connected up

 

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